|About the Book|
SPAIN TO-DAY PREFACE THIS book is the result of several visits to Spain - the last one in May, 1936. During the month I spent in Spain, I saw both the rank and file and many of the leaders of the Spanish working-class movement, I have to thank theMoreSPAIN TO-DAY PREFACE THIS book is the result of several visits to Spain - the last one in May, 1936. During the month I spent in Spain, I saw both the rank and file and many of the leaders of the Spanish working-class movement, I have to thank the many comrades and friends who sacrificed their time in showing and explaining events to me. Originally I intended to translate Joaquin Maurins book, Hacia la segunda revolucion. It soon became clear, however, that Maurins book takes much for granted which needs explaining in England. Never theless, my book is deeply indebted to Maurins work. I found most illuminating the conversations with Araquistain, Caballeros right-hand man Pretecil, editor of Claridad Juan Andrade, and Gorkin, editor of Batalla. I have to thank Mr. J. P. M. Millar and Dr. C. A. Smith for permission to use material which appeared in Plebs and Controversy respectively. For the benefit of readers who are not conversant with Spanish events, I have added a map, a chronol ogy and a survey of persons, and a list of abbrevi ations. E. C August, 1936. CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION i CHAP. I. PERMANENT CAUSES OF SOCIAL UNREST 6 II. THE POLITICAL FORCES AT WORK 45 III. POLITICAL EVENTS UP TO 1935 80 IV. LARGO CABALLERO 102 V. THE EVENTS OF 1936 106 CHRONOLOGY 1898. 1909-1923. 1930. 1931. April 14. August October. November. 1932. January. September. 1933. March. June. August. September. December. 1934. January. April. October. Loss of Cuba and Philippines. Insurrection in Barcelona. Primo de Rivera becomes dictator. Primo de Rivera dismissed. The Republic established. Religious orders dissolved. 20 years imprisonment for Berenguer. Cabinet Azafia. Law for Protec tion of Republic.Alfonso XIII found guilty of high treason. Jesuit order dissolved. Partial autonomy of Catalonia. Law for agrarian reform. Fascist propaganda declared illegal. Azana resigns. Law for protection of Republic repealed. U. S. S. R. recognized. Lerroux Government. Right Wing Cortez. The establishment of Cbncentra-y tion Camps announced. Samper Government. Amnesty for Right Wing offenders. Insurrection in Asturias and Barcelona. ix CHRONOLOGY 1935. July. New law for agrarian reform. 1936. February 16. Popular Front wins elections. ig. Cabinet Azana. 22. Amnesty for 35,000 Left Wing prisoners. 29. The readmission degree. May. Azana, President of the Republic Casares Quiroga Premier. July. Calvo Sotelo, monarchist leader, assassinated. Army rebellion in Morocco. Civil War throughout Spain. PERSONS Juan ANDRADE. AZANA, Largo CABALLERO. LERROUX. MAURA. Joaquin MAURIN, Gonzales PENA. Indalecio PRIETO. Gil ROBLES. Trotzkyite, and author of valuable Marxist books. President of the Republic. Repub lican for many years and twice Premier of Spain. Leader of the Left Wing Social ists. President of the U. G. T. Socialist unions. Former Socialist, then Republican and head of the Government at the time of Republican reaction. Statesman under Alfonso XIII, representing the feudal land owners. Leader of the P. O. U. M., a marxist party composed mainly of for mer communists. Deputy, and one of the most brilliant young Spanish politicians. Chairman of the Socialist party Centrist. Prominent in the Rebellion of Asturias. Leader of the Centre of the Socialist party. Leader of the Accion Popular, a form of Roman Catholic fascism. ABBREVIATIONS C. N. T. Confederation Nacional de Trabajo. An archist Trade Union. F.A. I. Federacion anarchista iberica. Illegal or ganization of the anarchists. P. O. U. M. Partido obrero de unificaci6n Marxista. Led by Joaquin Maurin. Centre in Barcelona. U. G. T. Uni6n General de Trabajadores. Socialist Trade Union. U. H. P. Union de hermanos proletarios. Symbol of United Front in October, 1934. One peseta is worth approximately ten cents.